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Report by a Government Agency

APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition - Government report references are covered in Section 10.4.

Legal Citation Examples

APA style does not have its own rules for citing legal materials and instead it refers users to the standard legal citation style commonly used in the United States, The Bluebook.

The Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation, also referred to as the McGill Guide, is the standard used most widely in Canada.

For in-depth examples on legal citations, please refer to the Legal Citations Guide. The examples given are some of the most common formatting used with APA style, and require only minor changes to the citations copied from the most frequented databases for primary legal sources: CanLII, QuickLaw and HeinOnline.


Corporate Author Name. (Year of Publication). Title of document: Subtitle if given. URL
Statista. (2017). Revenue in million US$.

Note: If the author and publisher are different people/organizations, then you should include the publishing organization before the URL.

VUNWTO. (2020). International tourist arrivals worldwide from 2010 to 2019, by region (in millions). Statista. 


Armstrong, M. (2020, August 20). UK government approval on the slide [Infographic]. Statista.
Narrative In-text
Corporate Author Name (Date)
Statista (2017)
(Corporate Author Name, Year)
(Statista, 2017)

If the author and publisher are different people/organizations

Narrative In-text
Corporate Author Name (Date)
UNWTO (2018)
(Corporate Author Name, Year)
(UNWTO, 2018)

Career Cruising

Follow the instructions on the Career Cruising Help page under "Additional Information & Resources".
Article title. (n.d.). Career Cruising. Retrieved date, from URL
Office manager. (n.d.). Career Cruising. Retrieved January 17, 2024 from
As there is no author, cite this source by its title in the in-text citation. Titles of web pages are in quotation marks. Capitalize important words in titles in the in-text citation (but not in the reference list). Where possible, include a section name to help the reader find the section of the page where the information is located.
(Title, n.d.)
The work of the office manager can be stressful ("Office Manager", At a Glance section, n.d.).

Personal Communication

Since the material cannot be recovered (e.g., personal interviews, private letters, memos, telephone conversations, or emails) it is not included in References.

APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition - Personal communications are covered in Section 8.9

Narrative In-text
Author (personal communication, Month Day, Year)
E. M. Paradis (personal communication, August 8, 2019)
(Author, personal communication, Month Day, Year)
(T. Nguyen, personal communication, February 24, 2020)

Secondary Sources

In the reference list, provide an entry for the secondary source that you used based on the format (ie. book, online, etc.) of the item.

APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition - Secondary sources are covered in Section 8.6

In the text, identify the primary source and write “as cited in” the secondary source that you used. 

Narrative In-text
Primary Author's work (as cited in Secondary Author, Date)
Allport’s diary (as cited in Nicholson, 2003)
(Primary Author, Date, as cited in Secondary author, date)
(Rabbitt, 1982, as cited in Lyon et al., 2014)

Open Educational Resources

APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition - Open educational resource references follow the same format as webpages, which are covered in Section 10.16

Dictionary Entry

APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition - Dictionary entry references are covered in Section 10.3