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Canadian Health Care for Foreign Trained Professionals

Government Sources

Government publications, since they come from many different sources, can be challenging to cite. Here are some resources that will help you cite your government document. 

Intranet Sources

Personal Communication

(Interviewee, personal communication, Month Day, Year)
(J. Smith, personal communication, July 28, 2016)

(APA, 2010, p. 17)

None required since the material cannot be recovered ie: personal interviews, private letters, memos, telephone conversations, or emails.


(Producer, Date)
(Van Nuys, 2007)
Producer, A. (Producer). (Date). Title [Description of document]. Retrieved from URL
Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from 

Hoade, S. (2010, October 31). Zombies in literature: Intro to zombie studies [Video podcast]. Available from

  • Provide the exact date (month, day, year) because podcasts may be recorded frequently. (APA, 2012, p. 28)
  • Provide the home page URL rather than the full url, because the video is easily available by search (APA, 2012, p. 27).
  • For sources in which Retrieved from may seem misleading, Available from represents a useful alternative (here, the video can be ordered from the URL, but the content cannot be viewed online) (APA, 2012, p. 26).

Secondary Sources

  • In the text, name the original work and give a citation for the secondary source (APA, 2010, p. 178).

In the text, use the following citation

Johnson’s study (as cited in Beatty, 1982)…..
  • To cite a work discussed in a secondary source, give the secondary source in the reference list.

If Johnson’s unpublished manuscript is cited in Beatty, cite Beatty in the reference list  

Beatty, J. (1982). Task-evoked pupillary responses. Psychological Bulletin, 9, 276- 292.